James Monroe fought in the Revolutionary War and was wounded with a musket ball to the shoulder at the Battle of Trenton. He studied law under Thomas Jefferson and opposed ratification of the Constitution on the grounds that it gave too much power to the federal government. Nevertheless, he served as Secretary of State, Secretary of War, and Governor of Virginia before becoming President of the United States. During his presidency, the United States extended its territories to include outposts and territories adjacent to the Pacific Ocean on the west coast. During his annual message to Congress in 1823, Monroe articulated what would become known as the Monroe Doctrine: a statement of warning to foreign powers that the United States would not accept recolonization of territories in the western hemisphere.
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Author of Thy King Dumb Come and Accountability Citizenship, Stephen P. Tryon is a businessman and technologist with extensive experience in e-commerce, a retired Soldier, and former Senate Fellow.